Reports and Studies

New Jersey Advocates for Immigrant Detainees (2015). 23 Hours in the Box: Solitary Confinement in New Jersey Immigration Detention. June:

Vera Institute of Justice (2015). Solitary Confinement: Common Misconceptions and Emerging Safe Alternatives. May:

Human Rights Watch (2015). Callous and Cruel: Use of Force against Inmates with Mental Disabilities in US Jails and Prisons. May:

Disability Rights Oregon (2015).  Behind the Eleventh Door: Solitary Confinement of Individuals with Mental Illness in Oregon’s State Penitentiary Behavioral Health Unit by Joel Greenberg and Sarah Radcliffe. May: 

Treatment Advocacy Center and the National Sheriffs’ Association (2015). The Treatment of Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails: A State Survey. April:

Office of the Inspector General, United States Department of Justice (2015). Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. April:

American Civil Liberties Union of Montana (2015). Locked in the Past: Montana’s Jails in Crisis. February:

American Civil Liberties Union of Texas (2015). A Solitary Failure: The Waste, Cost and Harm of Solitary Confinement in Texas. February:

Children’s Defense Fund – California (2015). Rising Up, Speaking Out: Youth Transforming Los Angeles County’s Juvenile Justice System. January:

Disability Rights Nebraska (2014). Selected Issues in Mental Health and Corrections: A Collection and Summary of Research by Brad Meurrens and Jesse Hochheiser. November:

United Nations Committee Against Torture (2014). Convention Against Torture Periodic Report of the United States of America. November:

University of North Caroline School of Law Immigration/Human Rights Clinic (2014).  Solitary Confinement as Torture. November:

United States Department of Justice (2014). CRIPA Investigation of the New York City Department of Correction Jails on Rikers Island. August:

New York City Board of Correction (2014). Barriers to Recreation at Rikers Island’s Central Punitive Segregation Unit. July: 

Human Rights Watch (2014). Illusions of Justice: Human Rights Abuses in US Terrorism Prosecutions. July:

American Civil Liberties Union (2014). Warehoused and Forgotten: Immigrants Trapped in Our Shadow Private Prison System. June:

Michigan Council on Crime and Delinquency (2014). Youth Behind Bars: Examining the impact of prosecuting and incarcerating kids in Michigan’s criminal justice system by Michelle Weemhoff and Kristen Staley. May:

American Civil Liberties Union (2014).  Worse than Second Class: Solitary Confinement of Women in the United States. April:

Human Rights Council (2014). Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment by Juan E. Méndez. April:

Treatment Advocacy Center (2014). The Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails: A State Survey. April:

Cardozo School of Law Youth Justice Clinic (2014). Rethinking Rikers: Moving from a Correctional to a Therapeutic Model for Youth by Professor Ellen Yaroshefsky. February:

John Marshall Law School (2014). U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s New Directive on Segregation: Why We Need Further Protections. February:

New Mexico Center on Law and Poverty and the American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico (2013). Inside the Box: The Real Costs of Solitary Confinement in New Mexico’s Prisons and Jails.  October:

American Civil Liberties Union of Colorado (2013). Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Colorado’s continued warehousing of mentally ill prisoners in solitary confinement. July:

American Civil Liberties Union (2013). A Death Before Dying: Solitary Confinement on Death Row. July:

Physicians for Human Rights (2013).  Buried Alive: Solitary Confinement in the US Detention System by Christy Carnegie Fujio JD MA, Kristine Huskey JD, Mike Corradini JD. April:

American Civil Liberties Union of Maine (2013). Change is Possible: A Case Study of Solitary Confinement Reform in Maine by Zachary Heiden. March:

American Friends Service Committee Stopmax Campaign (1997). Survival in Solitary: A Manual Written by and for People Living in Control Units.  Latest edition 2012:

ACLU/Human Rights Watch (2012). Growing Up Locked Down: Youth in Solitary Confinement in Jails and Prison Across the United States by Ian Kysel. October:

New York Civil Liberties Union (2012). Boxed In: The True Cost of Extreme Isolation in New York’s Prisons by Scarlet Kim, Taylor Pendergrass and Helen Zelon. October:

Amnesty International (2012). The Edge of Endurance: Prison Conditions in California’s Security Housing Units. September:

Heartland Alliance’s National Immigrant Justice Center and Physicians for Human Rights (2012). Invisible in Isolation: The Use of Segregation and Solitary Confinement in Immigration Detention. September:

American Friends Service Committee (2012). Lifetime Lockdown: How Isolation Conditions Impact Prisoner Reentry. August:

New York City Bar Association, Committee on International Human Rights (2011). Supermax Confinement in U.S. Prisons by David Stoelting. September:

The Colorado Juvenile Defender Coalition (2011). Caging Children in Crisis. January:

Human Rights Watch (2009). “Mental Illness, Human Rights, and U.S. Prisons.” Statement for the Record to the Senate Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law, September 22:

Ashley Nellis and Ryan S. King (2009). No Exit: The Expanding Use of Life Sentences in America. The Sentencing Project, July:

Human Rights Watch (2009). No Equal Justice: The Prison Litigation Reform Act in the United States. June:

Lindsay M. Hayes (2009). Characteristics of Juvenile Suicide in Confinement. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, February:

Laura Magnani / AFSC Oakland (2008). Buried Alive: Long-Term Isolation in California’s Youth and Adult Prisons. American Friends Service Committee, May:

Sharon Shalev (2008). Sourcebook on Solitary Confinement. Mannheim Centre for Criminology, London School of Economics and Politics, October:

Human Rights Watch (2008). Locked Up Alone: Detention Conditions and Mental Health at Guantanamo. June:

Caroline Isaacs and Matthew Lowen (2007). Buried Alive: Long-Term Isolation in Arizona’s Youth and Adult Prisons. May:

Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons (2006). Confronting Confinement. Vera Institute for Justice, June:

Daniel P. Mears (2006). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Supermax Prisons. Urban Institute, March:

Sarah Lawrence and Daniel P. Mears (2004). Benefit-Cost Analysis of Supermax Prisons: Critical Steps and Considerations. Urban Institute:

Correctional Association (2003). Lockdown New York: Disciplinary Confinement in New York State Prisons. October:

Human Rights Watch (2003). Ill-Equipped: U.S. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness.

Rachel Kamel and Bonnie Kerness (2003). The Prison Inside the Prison: Control Units, Supermax Prisons, and Devices of Torture. American Friends Service Committee:

Human Rights Watch (2000). Out of Sight: Super-Maximum Security Confinement in the U.S. February 1:

Human Rights Watch (1999). Red Onion State Prison: Super-Maximum Security Confinement in Virginia. April:

Chase Riveland (1999). Supermax Prisons: Overview and General Considerations. National Institute of Corrections, January:

Human Rights Watch (1997). Cold Storage: Super-Maximum Security Confinement in Indiana. October 1: