Reports and Studies

New Jersey Advocates for Immigrant Detainees (2015). 23 Hours in the Box: Solitary Confinement in New Jersey Immigration Detention. June: http://www.afsc.org/sites/afsc.civicactions.net/files/documents/23%20Hours%20in%20the%20Box.pdf

Vera Institute of Justice (2015). Solitary Confinement: Common Misconceptions and Emerging Safe Alternatives. May: http://www.vera.org/sites/default/files/resources/downloads/solitary-confinement-misconceptions-safe-alternatives-report_1.pdf

Human Rights Watch (2015). Callous and Cruel: Use of Force against Inmates with Mental Disabilities in US Jails and Prisons. May: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/usprisoner0515_ForUpload.pdf

Disability Rights Oregon (2015).  Behind the Eleventh Door: Solitary Confinement of Individuals with Mental Illness in Oregon’s State Penitentiary Behavioral Health Unit by Joel Greenberg and Sarah Radcliffe. May: http://droregon.org/wp-content/uploads/Behind-the-Eleventh-Door-Electronic-Version.pdf 

Treatment Advocacy Center and the National Sheriffs’ Association (2015). The Treatment of Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails: A State Survey. April: http://www.tacreports.org/storage/documents/treatment-behind-bars/treatment-behind-bars.pdf

Office of the Inspector General, United States Department of Justice (2015). Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. April: https://oig.justice.gov/reports/2015/a1515.pdf

American Civil Liberties Union of Montana (2015). Locked in the Past: Montana’s Jails in Crisis. February: http://aclumontana.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/2015-ACLU-Jail-Report.pdf

American Civil Liberties Union of Texas (2015). A Solitary Failure: The Waste, Cost and Harm of Solitary Confinement in Texas. February: http://aclutx.org/download/197

Children’s Defense Fund – California (2015). Rising Up, Speaking Out: Youth Transforming Los Angeles County’s Juvenile Justice System. January: http://www.cdfca.org/zz-testing/archives/april2015website/research-library/documents/rising-up-speaking-out.pdf

Disability Rights Nebraska (2014). Selected Issues in Mental Health and Corrections: A Collection and Summary of Research by Brad Meurrens and Jesse Hochheiser. November: http://www.disabilityrightsnebraska.org/file_download/2a01f60d-448a-4e69-a7ac-ef439085ec49

United Nations Committee Against Torture (2014). Convention Against Torture Periodic Report of the United States of America. November: http://www.ushrnetwork.org/sites/ushrnetwork.org/files/periodic.pdf

University of North Caroline School of Law Immigration/Human Rights Clinic (2014).  Solitary Confinement as Torture. November: http://www.law.unc.edu/documents/academics/humanrights/solitaryconfinement/fullreport.pdf

United States Department of Justice (2014). CRIPA Investigation of the New York City Department of Correction Jails on Rikers Island. August: http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/08/05/nyregion/05rikers-report.html?_r=0

New York City Board of Correction (2014). Barriers to Recreation at Rikers Island’s Central Punitive Segregation Unit. July: http://www.nyc.gov/html/boc/downloads/pdf/reports/CPSU_Rec_Report.pdf 

Human Rights Watch (2014). Illusions of Justice: Human Rights Abuses in US Terrorism Prosecutions. July: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/usterrorism0714_ForUpload_0_0_0.pdf

American Civil Liberties Union (2014). Warehoused and Forgotten: Immigrants Trapped in Our Shadow Private Prison System. June: https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/assets/060614-aclu-car-reportonline.pdf

Michigan Council on Crime and Delinquency (2014). Youth Behind Bars: Examining the impact of prosecuting and incarcerating kids in Michigan’s criminal justice system by Michelle Weemhoff and Kristen Staley. May: http://www.miccd.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/MCCD-Youth-Behind-Bars-Final.pdf

American Civil Liberties Union (2014).  Worse than Second Class: Solitary Confinement of Women in the United States. April: https://www.aclu.org/report/worse-second-class-solitary-confinement-women-united-states

Human Rights Council (2014). Report of the Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment by Juan E. Méndez. April: http://antitorture.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/Report_Observations_Govt_Communications_Replies_2014.pdf

Treatment Advocacy Center (2014). The Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails: A State Survey. April: http://www.tacreports.org/storage/documents/treatment-behind-bars/treatment-behind-bars.pdf

Cardozo School of Law Youth Justice Clinic (2014). Rethinking Rikers: Moving from a Correctional to a Therapeutic Model for Youth by Professor Ellen Yaroshefsky. February: http://www.cardozo.yu.edu/news/rikers

John Marshall Law School (2014). U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s New Directive on Segregation: Why We Need Further Protections. February: http://www.jmls.edu/clinics/international-human-rights/pdfs/customs-segregation-report.pdf.

New Mexico Center on Law and Poverty and the American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico (2013). Inside the Box: The Real Costs of Solitary Confinement in New Mexico’s Prisons and Jails.  October: http://nmpovertylaw.org/WP-nmclp/wordpress/WP-nmclp/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/Solitary_Confinement_Report_FINALsmallpdf.com_.pdf.

American Civil Liberties Union of Colorado (2013). Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Colorado’s continued warehousing of mentally ill prisoners in solitary confinement. July: https://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights/colorado-prisons-continue-warehouse-mentally-ill-solitary-confinement.

American Civil Liberties Union (2013). A Death Before Dying: Solitary Confinement on Death Row. July: https://www.aclu.org/deathrowsolitary.

Physicians for Human Rights (2013).  Buried Alive: Solitary Confinement in the US Detention System by Christy Carnegie Fujio JD MA, Kristine Huskey JD, Mike Corradini JD. April: http://physiciansforhumanrights.org/library/reports/buried-alive-solitary-confinement-in-the-us-detention-system.html.

American Civil Liberties Union of Maine (2013). Change is Possible: A Case Study of Solitary Confinement Reform in Maine by Zachary Heiden. March: http://www.aclumaine.org/changeispossible.

American Friends Service Committee Stopmax Campaign (1997). Survival in Solitary: A Manual Written by and for People Living in Control Units.  Latest edition 2012: https://afsc.org/document/survivors-manual-surviving-solitary.

ACLU/Human Rights Watch (2012). Growing Up Locked Down: Youth in Solitary Confinement in Jails and Prison Across the United States by Ian Kysel. October: http://www.aclu.org/criminal-law-reform/growing-locked-down-youth-solitary-confinement-jails-and-prisons-across-united

New York Civil Liberties Union (2012). Boxed In: The True Cost of Extreme Isolation in New York’s Prisons by Scarlet Kim, Taylor Pendergrass and Helen Zelon. October: http://www.nyclu.org/news/nyclu-report-exposes-inhumane-arbitrary-use-of-solitary-confinement-ny-state-prisons

Amnesty International (2012). The Edge of Endurance: Prison Conditions in California’s Security Housing Units. September: http://www.amnestyusa.org/research/reports/the-edge-of-endurance-prison-conditions-in-california-s-security-housing-units

Heartland Alliance’s National Immigrant Justice Center and Physicians for Human Rights (2012). Invisible in Isolation: The Use of Segregation and Solitary Confinement in Immigration Detention. September: http://www.immigrantjustice.org/publications/report-invisible-isolation-use-segregation-and-solitary-confinement-immigration-detenti#.Uz4Feq1dVYQ

American Friends Service Committee (2012). Lifetime Lockdown: How Isolation Conditions Impact Prisoner Reentry. August: https://afsc.org/document/lifetime-lockdown-report

New York City Bar Association, Committee on International Human Rights (2011). Supermax Confinement in U.S. Prisons by David Stoelting. September: http://www2.nycbar.org/pdf/report/uploads/20072165-TheBrutalityofSupermaxConfinement.pdf

The Colorado Juvenile Defender Coalition (2011). Caging Children in Crisis. January: www.campaignforyouthjustice.org/documents/CO_CagingChildren.pdf

Human Rights Watch (2009). “Mental Illness, Human Rights, and U.S. Prisons.” Statement for the Record to the Senate Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Human Rights and the Law, September 22: http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/09/22/mental-illness-human-rights-and-us-prisons.

Ashley Nellis and Ryan S. King (2009). No Exit: The Expanding Use of Life Sentences in America. The Sentencing Project, July: http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/publications/inc_noexitseptember2009.pdf.

Human Rights Watch (2009). No Equal Justice: The Prison Litigation Reform Act in the United States. June: http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2009/06/16/no-equal-justice-0.

Lindsay M. Hayes (2009). Characteristics of Juvenile Suicide in Confinement. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, February: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/214434.pdf.

Laura Magnani / AFSC Oakland (2008). Buried Alive: Long-Term Isolation in California’s Youth and Adult Prisons. American Friends Service Committee, May: http://afsc.org/sites/afsc.civicactions.net/files/documents/StopMaxCA.pdf.

Sharon Shalev (2008). Sourcebook on Solitary Confinement. Mannheim Centre for Criminology, London School of Economics and Politics, October: http://solitaryconfinement.org/sourcebook.

Human Rights Watch (2008). Locked Up Alone: Detention Conditions and Mental Health at Guantanamo. June: www.supermaxed.com/NewSupermaxMaterials/Locked-Up-Alone-Guantanamo-HRW.pdf.

Caroline Isaacs and Matthew Lowen (2007). Buried Alive: Long-Term Isolation in Arizona’s Youth and Adult Prisons. May: http://afsc.org/sites/afsc.civicactions.net/files/documents/Buried%20Alive.pdf.

Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons (2006). Confronting Confinement. Vera Institute for Justice, June: http://www.vera.org/pubs/confronting-confinement.

Daniel P. Mears (2006). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Supermax Prisons. Urban Institute, March: http://www.urban.org/publications/411326.html.

Sarah Lawrence and Daniel P. Mears (2004). Benefit-Cost Analysis of Supermax Prisons: Critical Steps and Considerations. Urban Institute: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/211972.pdf

Correctional Association (2003). Lockdown New York: Disciplinary Confinement in New York State Prisons. October: http://www.correctionalassociation.org/resource/lockdown-new-york-disciplinary-confinement-in-new-york-state-prisons.

Human Rights Watch (2003). Ill-Equipped: U.S. Prisons and Offenders with Mental Illness.http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2003/10/21/ill-equipped

Rachel Kamel and Bonnie Kerness (2003). The Prison Inside the Prison: Control Units, Supermax Prisons, and Devices of Torture. American Friends Service Committee: afsc.org/sites/afsc.civicactions.net/files/documents/PrisonInsideThePrison.pdf

Human Rights Watch (2000). Out of Sight: Super-Maximum Security Confinement in the U.S. February 1: http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2000/02/01/out-sight-super-maximum-security-confinement-us.

Human Rights Watch (1999). Red Onion State Prison: Super-Maximum Security Confinement in Virginia. April: www.hrw.org/legacy/reports/1999/redonion/.

Chase Riveland (1999). Supermax Prisons: Overview and General Considerations. National Institute of Corrections, January: static.nicic.gov/Library/014937.pdf.

Human Rights Watch (1997). Cold Storage: Super-Maximum Security Confinement in Indiana. October 1: www.hrw.org/en/reports/1997/10/01/cold-storage.